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Kamis, 10 Oktober 2013

Sakura Sea

Nama Band                         : Sakura Sea
Tahun Terbentuk                  : 14 February 2012
Aliran                                   : Japanese Pop/Rock
Asal                                     : Kota Tarakan
Jumlah Personil                     : 5 Orang
                                                                1. Rifky (Vokal)
                                                                2. Oni (Gitar)
                                                                3. Ramly (Gitar)
                                                                4. Ridho (Bass)
                                                                5. Puro (Drum)
Karier                                   : Saat ini hanya manggung di daerah Kota Tarakan dan sekitarnya
Album                                   : -
Single                                    : Mati Rasa
                                                                Ciptaan: Sakura Sea
                                                                Lirik        : Ramly
Leader Band                       : Ramly
Debut                                  : 14 Pebruari 2012 (Festival Karya Cipta Lagu di Hari Valentine di GTM)

Sejarah Terbantuknya Sakura Sea
Terjalin pertemanan antara Oni dan Ramly yang pada saat itu memang punya impian membentuk sebuah band yang beraliran Jepang seperti J’Rocks di Indonesia dan seperti L’arc en ciel di Jepang, hanya pada saat itu kita tidak memiliki seorang vokalis, bassis dan drummer. Oni memiliki seorang teman kuliah yaitu Ridho yang kebetulan juga memiliki jenis musik yang sama beraliran Jepang dan Ramly juga memiliki seorang teman yaitu Rifky yang sebelumnya mereka sudah pernah bergabung dalam sebuah band sebelum Sakura Sea. Beremepat telah bergabung dan seorang drummer yang menjadi permasalahan ketika itu yang belum ada, singkatnya Ramly pernah ikut ngejame bareng Puro cs distudio walaupun pada saat itu kita belum kenal sama sekali, Ramly mencoba menghubungi Puro untuk bergabung dan Puro menyambut baik maksud kami untuk membentuk sebuah grup Band maka dengan kesepakatan bersama terbentuklah Sakura Sea yang mana nama tiu sebelumnya sudah direncanakan oleh Oni dan kita sepakati. Debut pertama pun kami lakukan di hari valentine dengan mengikuti sebu ah festival hingga hari ini Sakura Sea masih sering mengikuti event musik seperti acara akustikkan dan acara lainnya.

Single Mati Rasa sedang digarap oleh Sakura Sea saat ini, rencananya setelah semua konsep music dan lagunya sudah siap Sakura Sea akan melakukan proses Recording. Semoga semuanya selalu diberikan kemudahan sehingga apa yang menjadi impian Sakura Sea akan terwujud. Lagu ini sendiri menceritakan tentang seseorang yang kecewa karena telah diberi harapan palsu oleh seseorang dan akhirnya kecewa berat dan mati rasa untuk mencintai dan berharap pada seseorang tersebut. Aliran dari lagu ini sendiri adalah Japanese Rock alternative yang diusung oleh Sakura Sea sendiri. Ganbarimasu untuk sakura Sea..

Jumat, 07 Juni 2013

A general Review

The general objective of this part is to make students have overall ideas about qualitative and quantitative researches, including their differences and similarities and their strengths and weaknesses.

The results of linguistic and language educational inquiries or researches are sometimes put into questions in relation to methods, approaches and instruments used in the inquiries. A challenging question that is always drawn onto the qualitative approach is that, "is qualitative approach really scientific?" (Bogdan and Biklen, 1982:39). A similar question is also often addressed to some methods and instruments of linguistic inquiries. Such questions are, indeed, very important and hence needed by inquirers before conducting any research project. It is not simply because certain approach, method or instrument might be invalid for linguistic and language educational inquiries; such questions are needed and raised mainly to challenge and encourage researchers to aware of the truth and to define the truth in a research to add to the knowledge of the field he or she is involved.

A question then, what considerations should be taken into account in selecting and implementing certain approach, method and instrument in an enquiry? To answer the question, this part of the paper describes and analyzes strengths and weaknesses of both qualitative and quantitative designs in linguistic and language educational inquiries. The aim is to discover important issues to be taken into account before conducting a research.

Smith and Heshusius (1986:4-12) mention that recently a long debate among researchers concerning differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches to data analysis has closed down. The claim that there are fundamental differences between these two approaches is no longer sustained and even it has turned into the claim of compatibility and the call for cooperation. This is due to the assumption that their differences are primarily in the area of procedures and techniques.

However, Smith and Heshusius argue that the claim of compatibility and the call for cooperation cannot be sustained. They say this claim derives from a misconception and confusion on the different definitions of method, i.e. "method as procedures and techniques" and the "method as logic of justification", as well as a misunderstanding about a research or an inquiry as  "a matter of what works."

Seliger and Shohamy (1989:114-115) also states that there are differences between these two approaches. Therefore such differences have to be considered in designing and conducting a research project, particularly in the area of second language research. He confirms:

"The differences in these two approaches are significant and it is likely that the debate as to which approach is more valid will continue for some time to come."  (Seliger, 1989:115)

Considering such comments on the differences between quantitative and qualitative research design, this section of the paper aims to compare the yield of these two design to data analysis particularly in the area of linguistics as follows.

Neuman (1991:413) explains that qualitative and quantitative designs are different mainly in four ways. Firstly, the quantitative research design and data analysis makes use of statistic analysis or techniques which are standardized and specialized. Such analyses are: correlation, chi square, t- test, factors analysis and the likes. In contrast, the qualitative approach to data analysis is less standardized and usually inductive.

Secondly, a quantitative researcher starts analyzing data when all the data have been collected and condensed into numbers. A qualitative researcher, on the other hand, starts the analysis early in his research project. The results of an early analysis are used as clues for further investigations and analysis.

The third difference between these two approaches is in how each of the approaches relates to social theory. Quantitative researchers, in this case, relate their data analysis to the social theory by manipulating data into numbers that represent empirical facts. The numbers are then used to test abstract hypotheses with variable constructs. In contrast, in a qualitative analysis, a researcher creates new concepts and theories. These are done by blending together empirical evidence and abstract concepts.

The last difference is in the degree of abstractness or distance from details of social life. Since quantitative data analysis makes use of numbers, hypotheses and variables, it is more abstract than the qualitative one. Qualitative data is less abstract because they are presented in forms of words.  As a consequence the data are sometimes imprecise, diffuse and context biased and can have more than one meaning. (Neuman, 1991:413).

Based on the main differences between the two main designs of research above, the question then is, is either of these two designs more valid and more likely to bring about more scientific and accurate results?

Since quantitative data analysis makes use of standardized and specialized techniques as mentioned above, it is always considered to be more valid than the qualitative approach. The qualitative approach on the other hand is always put into questions. An important question that is always drawn onto the qualitative approach is that, "is qualitative approach really scientific?" (Bogdan and Biklen, 1982:39).

Seliger in Second Language Research Method (1989:205) describes that while quantitative approach makes use of standardized techniques, qualitative approach makes use of two main techniques.  Each of these techniques follows systematic steps of data analysis. The first technique is through "inductive procedure" which is "descriptive and explorative in nature."  By the use of this procedure a researcher derives a set of categories from corpus or data. These categories are then applied to the remainder data and are refined to establish that categories or to discover patterns.

The second technique is by applying a former ordering system of categories to the data being investigated. In other words, the researcher applies a pre-determined model, i.e. the model that already exists, to the data analysis.  This model or system is derived from either a conceptual framework or from specific research questions.

Another question, however, may come up. This question is concerned with subjectivity or researchers' opinions, prejudice and other biases and their effects on the data on one hand; and on the other hand, the change of subjects' behavior at the presence of researchers.

To avoid such cases, qualitative researchers always make detail field notes which involve reflections on their own subjectivity. Sometimes a research project is conducted in team in which members of the team mutually critique field notes of their colleagues to avoid the presence of subjectivity and other biases.  Researchers are also required to spend a considerable amount of time with their subjects in the field. Therefore, qualitative researchers usually spend longer time in the field than that of quantitative.

In maintaining subjects' behavior, qualitative researchers "interact with their subjects in a natural, unobstructive, and non threatening manner." (Bogdan and Biklen, 1982:43). They regard their subjects as friends and build up an intense and equal relationship with them.

It is different from qualitative researchers, quantitative researchers have "subjects-researcher" (Bogdan and Biklen, 1982:48) and short term relationship with their subjects. They stay detached from their subjects and tend to ignore the context of what is being investigated.

As the quantitative data analysis makes use of numbers, this approach can deal with a large numbers of data. The data are collected from a representative sample of a population which is usually larger than the population of qualitative research. (Bogdan and Biklen, 1982:47). The result of the analysis is therefore generalizable.

Qualitative research approaches generalizability by replication and, therefore, they normally do not need samples of a population. (Allwright and Bailey, 1991:48-50; Bogdan and Biklen, 1982:47). In other words, a research project and data analysis is drawn upon other studies which have been done before. A pre-determined model, as what mentioned above, is therefore used in the data analysis.

Although there are differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches to data analysis, researchers always have the same goal, i.e. to add to knowledge. Bogdan and Biklen (1982:82) state:

"The researchers primary goal is to add to knowledge, not to pass judgement on a setting. The worth of a study is to the degree to which it generates theory, description, or understanding. For a study to blame someone for a particular states of affairs, or to label a particular school as good or bad or to present a pat prejudicial analysis can brand a study as superficial."

The question then, is when to use which approach (design) to data analysis.  In the area of linguistics including language education research, either of these two approaches can be used.  Seliger (1989:206,207) gives an example of using qualitative approach to analyze syntactic and morphological errors committed by immigrant children in acquiring English language. To analyze the data of this type of research qualitatively, he suggests the use of either inductive procedure or pre-determined model.

Kibrik (1977:51), furthermore, suggests the use of "Hypothesis 1 - Data 1 - Hypothesis 2 - data 2 - Elicited knowledge", as a discovery procedures to discover patterns (e.g. basic grammatical categories). Such procedures indeed need much longer time to obtain valid data when compare to the use of quantitative approach.

The quantitative data analysis has also been used in the area of linguistics since Saussure introduced the term  "langage" which refers to  "quantitative linguistics." (Herdan, 1964:3). Currently it is used widely in various research projects in the field of linguistics as Wood, et al (1986:3) say:

"The range of studies for which statistic is applicable is vast in applied linguistics, language acquisition, language variation and linguistics proper."

However, the question of which approach to use for data analysis is not a simple question. This question requires a researcher, particularly in the area of linguistics and language education research, to starts his research project by taking into account such questions as: What is the nature of the problem he is heading? How he wants to engage with the problem, or what will be his best relationship with the problem going to be investigated? And the last is how is the truth to be defined based on the nature of the problem. (Smith and Heshusius, cited in Seliger, 1989). Bearing in mind such questions, a researcher is expected to be successful in his investigation and give great contribution to the knowledge in general, particularly in the field of linguistics.

In summary, this part has described that there are, indeed some differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches to data analysis in social science in general, and in the field of linguistics in particular. The main differences are in the use of instruments or techniques for data analysis. Both approaches, however share the same goal, i.e. to add to knowledge. Concerning the result of the analysis, it highly depends on how a researcher looks at the nature of the problem he is investigating.  Based on this view he then decides the best way to define the truth as well as the best approach to use for data analysis.

Selasa, 14 Mei 2013

Kata Ucapan Selamat Pagi

Ucapan Selamat Pagi - pagi merupakan awal alias pembuka perjalanan hari kita. Pagi hari dengan semangat yang bergairah mampu membawa kita agar lebih memberikan yang positif untuk hari hari yang kita jalani. Susah dan sedih adalah hal yang harus kita lalui dengan semangat. Baiklah buat yang sudah tak sabar ingin mengirimkan sebuah kata menyambut pagi kepada seseorang yang berharga dimata anda, bisa membaca ucapan selamat pagi dibawah ini.
Description: ucapan selamat pagi
1.      Ambillah segelas air putih dan minumlah kemudian pikirlah kemana kamu harus melangkah.
2.      Ambisi besar dalam hidup yaitu mampukah kau menggapai cita-citamu?
3.      Cucilah muka ketika kau beranjak dari tempat tidurmu, dan inilah saatnya berjuang untuk menggapai cita-citamu.
4.      Saatnya bekerja, saatnya memikul tanggung jawab yang sudah ada.
5.      Bila kau ditolak kerja, instropeksi dirilah jangan menyalahkan diri sendiri.
6.      Berbuat baiklah disaat kau masih dapat berbuat baik.
7.      Bersyukurlah dengan apa yang saat ini kau miliki, dan lakukanlah hal-hal yang dapat kamu lakukan.
8.      Pagi yang indah, lakukanlah sesuatu yang dapat membuat hari ini semakin indah.
9.      Jika kamu menganggap hari ini adalah hari yang paling buruk. Coba ubahlah hari yang buruk ini menjadi hari yang istimewa. Karena hanya anda sendirilah yang dapat mengubah hari yang buruk menjadi istimewa.
10.  *****%%%%###### :) Kesalahan bukan pada layar hp anda, ini ungkapan terdalam yang gak bisa aku artikan tapi kira2 artimya SELAMAT PAGI.
11.  Pagi adalah sebuah berkah yang indah. Tak masalah cerah atau mendung. Karena pagi adalah awal untuk memulai sesuatu yang disebut KEHIDUPAN. Selamat Pagi!
12.  mungkin malam bgtu sepi dgn gelap nya,bhkan siang bgtu kajam dgn panas nya,tp bgku kmu adlh sore yg mnjadi prantara ke2nya tuk mlahirkan pagi.
13.  Pagi yang indah adalah, pagi dengan sinar matahari cerah, dengan secangkir kopi di tangan dan dengan sms ini di HP. Selamat pagi!
14.  Selamat pagi unutk seorang yang ada di dalam hati Q, pagi ini merupakan mentari buat jiwa Q manghangatkan hati ku meleburkan embun raga ku
15.  Selamat pagi unutk seorang yang ada di dalam hati Q, pagi ini merupakan mentari buat jiwa Q manghangatkan hati ku meleburkan embun raga ku
16.  Eh eh…kalo didunia indonesia sini, kami dah waktu pagi lho?!.
Makanya skalian ku mo ngucapin nih.
Nah gmna dengan waktu dkhayangan sana bidadari?
sama g?
17.  Kesalahan bukan pada layar hp anda, ini ungkapan terdalam yang gak bisa aku artikan tapi kira2 artimya SELAMAT PAGI.
18.  Pagi ini sang bayu mampir tk ada kbar yg kutrima selain bisikmu yg kutmui pd sisa mimpi td mlm. Ketika hembusanya kembali kutitipkan pesan untukmu, selamat pagi..
19.  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ123456789*# cuma mau ngecek tombol HP, apa berfungsi semua. Sekalian mau bilang SELAMAT PAGI!
20.  Dinginnya pagi, terasa nyaman dalam hangatnya dekapan mentari, membangkitkan sukma. Gairahku bangga, menyapa hari ini, selamat datang pagi
21.  Ketika esok pagi telah menyapa dengan hangatnya sang mentari membangunkan kamu dari tidurmu smbutlah pagi yNG indah dengan senyum indahmu. ok?
22.  Ketika mentari teRBan9un dan teRsenYUM,teRin9at akAN hri yG brU yg hARuz qtA jLANi diAWali dnGN “goOd mOrnin9″
23.  kmn dunia brrpihak di pgi ini?tk ada kbar yg kutrima selain bisikmu yg kutmui pd sisa mimpi td mlm..selamat pagi..
24.  met pg dunia. to all my friend in d world.Keep on smile, do, and + thinking.
25.  mungkin malam bgtu sepi dgn gelap nya,bhkan siang bgtu kajam dgn panas nya,tp bgku kmu adlh sore yg mnjadi prantara ke2nya tuk mlahirkan pagi
26.  Selamat datang matahari pagi, biarlah hari ini menjadi ceria…seceria hati yang sedang ceria :)
27.  Selamat pagi untk seorang yang ada di dalam hati Q, pagi ini merupakan mentari buat jiwa Q manghangatkan hati ku meleburkan embun raga ku
28.  Sinar matahari yang menggeliat ingin menyapa, Selamat Pagi…kau akan kutemani dengan sinar hangatku
29.  takkn hdir tNp p’tmuan, takkn tlus tNp kju”ran, takkn sUci tNp ikatan, takkn abadi tNp kstia’n, takkn indah tNp ksih sygMu met pg flend
30.  Aku dapat mengatakan bahwa kau telah mengisi aku ... tapi itu akan menjadi sebuah kebohongan, karena setiap pagi saat bangun Aku lama bagi Anda lebih dari sehari sebelumnya. Rumus saya untuk hidup cukup sederhana. Saya bangun di pagi hari dan aku pergi tidur di malam hari. Di antara, Aku menempati diri sebaik mungkin.